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Coal production has adverse impacts on both land and water ecosystems.

On land, habitat destruction and fragmentation are major concerns for the AWA. Mining completely eradicates the existing vegetation, alters soil composition, and displaces fauna which can result in permanently scarred landscapes. Large sites cleared for open-pit mines and the associated infrastructure can change the entire topography of the area. Designation of land for coal leases should avoid areas of concern that include crucial habitat for threatened species and key migratory routes for large ungulates. Wetlands, aquifers, and surface waters are also negatively affected by coal mining and coal-fired power plants. Wetlands are destroyed in site areas, significant amounts of freshwater are used for commercial cooling and tailings leach out harmful pollutants into watersheds.  Coal companies should be held accountable for initial ecological assessments, remediation plans and reclamation efforts to mitigate environmental damage.

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